Today’s industrial requirements to meet specific performance demands has resulted In the development of a wide selection of wire cloth materials. No two materials have the exact same properties; sometimes, no one material has all the exact properties required. Generally, the selection of the material to be used is dependent on the intended usage and consideration of such factors as strength, resistance to abrasion, resistance to corrosion and resistance to heat.
The most commonly used materials for the weaving of wire cloth are described in this section.
Plain Carbon Steel
The term steel is used for many alloys. All steels contain manganese (which increases the hardness of steel) and carbon.
- Low-carbon steel is frequently used in the manufacturing of industrial wire cloth screens due to its tensile strength and high impact resistance. This alloy contains small percentages of carbon, manganese. Phosphorous, sulfur and silicon. Low abrasion resistance and low corrosion resistance may Limit usage, but a wide variety of special protective coatings may be applied. Galvanizing (before and after) is the most economical way to protect against corrosion. Also, a protective tin coating is often used on mud grade screens (tinned mill). In Addition, epoxy coatings are available using our electrostatic application of Powder Coating.
- High-carbon, hard drawn steel is used in wire cloth screens where resistance to abrasion, shock and heavy loads is essential. This alloy is used to assure longer screen lie than plain steel without the screen cloth becoming brittle. These screens are ideal for sizing, sorting and separating stone, gavel, coal and other abrasive materials. High-carbon screens are currently in use on vibrating machines throughout this country, as well as other parts of the globe.
- Oil tempered wire is high-carbon steel wire that has been specially tempered, to provide greater strength along with extra abrasion resistance. It is used under the most severe abrasive conditions.
When 11% or more of chromium is added to steel, the alloy becomes non-staining under conditions which will corrode steel. Thus the term stainless is applied to these steels.
These alloys contain chromium and nickel and are not magnetic in the annealed condition – but become slightly magnetic when cold worked. Superior corrosion resistance and strength at high temperatures are the main reasons for selections of these ferrous alloys.
- Type 304 is the basic stainless alloy and is often referred to as 18-8(18% chromium, 8% nickel). It withstands outdoor exposure without rusting and resists oxidation at 1400 temperatures. This alloy is principally used with food products, chemicals and pharmaceuticals due to its corrosion resistance, moisture-proof and non-contaminating characteristics. Where no specific stainless is specified, it is assumed that type 304 is acceptable.
- Type 304L is the same as T304, except It has extra-low carbon content for better welding.
- Type 316 is the basic 18-8 alloy, stabilized by the addition of 2% molybdenum to provide better corrosion resistance to many salts and acids, along with increased pitting resistance to salt water, brine, and chlorine salts. T316 can be used in bleach solutions containing up to 2% hydrochloric acid.
- Type 316L is the same as T316, except it has extra-low carbon content for better welding.
- Type 347 is the basic 18-8 alloy, stabilized by the addition of columbium (which does not volatize during welding). It is used for welding assemblies which operate in corrosive environments, so the weld and the base metal are equally corrosive resistant.
- Type 321 is the same as T347, except for the addition of titanium instead of columbium. Since the titanium tends to volatize during welding, T321 is normally, used for non-welded assemblies.
- Type 317 is the basic alloy, but with a higher nickel and molybdenum content (18% chromium, 14% nickel, 3% molybdenum) for increased corrosion resistance.
- Type 309 is a heat resistant alloy (23% chromium, 12% nickel) useful in temperatures up to 1700°F., but not the equal of higher nickel alloys.
- Type 310 has a higher nickel content than T309 (25% chromium, 20% nickel) and provides good strength and oxidation resistance at temperatures up to 2000°F.
- Type 330 is a nickel-chromium alloy (35% nickel, 15% chromium) used for heat treating baskets for temperatures up to 1650°F. (See Incoloy.)
- Type 410contains 12.5% chromium and is heat treatable, possesses mild corrosion resistance as well as heat and oxidation resistance up to 1400 F.
- Type 430contains 17% chromium and is more widely used in wire cloth production. This alloy is not heat treatable but is more resistant to chemical attack and high temperature than T410. T430 resists oxidation to 1600 F., but strength loss occurs above 1300°F.
Copper and Copper Alloys
- Copper offers excellent electrical and thermal conductivity. It is nonmagnetic and anti-sparking and is resistant to atmospheric corrosion, salt air and brine. Its application is limited, however, due to its low tensile strength, poor resistance to abrasion and common acids, and its high ductility.
- Brass High (70% copper, 30% zinc) and Low Brass (80% copper, 20% zinc), when compared to copper, have much better abrasion resistance, lower electrical conductivity, and better corrosion resistance. Low brass is the most widely used brass alloy.
- Bronze-Commercial alloy contains 90% copper and 10% zinc. It is superior to low brass in resistance to corrosion. Its good resistance to atmospheric corrosion makes this alloy popular for window screening.
- Bronze-Phosphor alloy (containing 4% to 9% tin, about 0.25% phosphorous with the balance copper) features good corrosion resistance, strength and toughness – especially as compared to brass. Phosphor Bronze is not suitable for exposure to hydrochloric acid or strong oxidizing agents.
Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys
These alloys are widely used in industry because of their light weight, corrosion resistance and ease of fabrication. The 5056 alloy (containing magnesium, manganese and chromium) is most often used for wire cloth products and Is non-heat treatable. 5056 contains 5% magnesium for good corrosion resistance (particularly in marine atmospheres) and greater strength.
Nickel and Nickel Alloys
- Pure Nickel has the ability to protect itself against certain forms of attack by developing a corrosion resisting or passive oxide film. Nickel has good corrosion resistance in reducing environments, while it retards corrosion in many oxidizing environments. Nickel wire cloth is often replaced today with stainless steel.
- Monel 400 contains approximately 67% nickel, 28% copper, and 5% other elements. It is essentially non-corrodible. It Is more resistant than copper to oxidation and is more resistant than nickel to reducing conditions. Monel was very popular in the past for food processing due to its excellent corrosion resistance and high strength. Monel wire cloth is often replaced today with stainless steel.
- Hastelloy B is used for corrosion resistance to hydrochloric acid but is usually not used for high temperatures.
- Hastelloy C is used for corrosion resistance to strong oxidizing agents. It also has good high temperature properties – in the 1600°F. to 1800°F. range.